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Hibernate N+1 problem


Using @ManyToOne, @OneToOne annotation

FetchType.LAZY or Eager is get n+1. Lazy when call getXXX then will load/fetch data, Eager is always get data already.

The most implicit n+1 is to use library to copy properties BeanUtils.copyproperties or write your own code using reflection copy properties then all getter and all getter of nested object are called.


An easy way to check hibernate n+1 that show query hibernate format_sql=true, example for Spring

Solution 1:

Using join load immediately in one query, incorrect when using pagination.

Advantages: Write code less, only declare annotation is done.


  • Many potential risks are out of control, cause always load join data. Adding more and more anotation @ManyToOne makes the entity bigger and bad performance.
  • Inner join will be OK, but using outer left join will be very slower when got a lot of data than separate another query.

Solution 2:

Don’t using @ManyToOne or @OneToOne for Entity, Write code by hand to load data for model.

Advantages: Write your own code, load/get enought data to use, easy to custom and maintenance.

Disadvantages: Write more codes than (1).

Implement in coding for solution 1:

  1. Join: using in query query
  2. Entity Graph (NamedEntityGraph)

Implement in coding for solution 2:

  • Using multiple queries